G.R. No. L-8506, 31 August 1956, 99 Phil. 841

FACTS:

Celestino Co doing business under the name of “Oriental Sash Factory” Celestino invokes Article 1467 of the New Civil Code to bolster its contention that in filing orders for windows and doors according to specifications, it did not sell, but merely contracted for particular pieces of work or “merely sold its services”. Said article reads as follows:

“Contract for the delivery at a certain price of an article which the vendor in the ordinary course of his business manufactures or procures for the general market, whether the same is on hand at the time or not, is a contract of sale, but if the goods are to be manufactured specially for the customer and upon his special order, and not for the general market, it is contract for a piece of work.”

The CIR asserted that Oriental Sash Factory sold materials ordinarily manufactured by it — sash, panels, mouldings — to Teodoro & Co., although in such form or combination as suited the fancy of the purchaser. Such new form does not divest the Oriental Sash Factory of its character as manufacturer. Neither does it take the transaction out of the category of sales under Article 1467 above quoted, because although the Factory does not, in the ordinary course of its business, manufacture and keep on stock doors of the kind sold to Teodoro, it could stock and/or probably had in stock the sash, mouldings and panels it used therefor (some of them at least).

ISSUE:

Whether Oriental Sash Factory is engaged in manufacturing.

RULING:

Yes. This Factory accepts a job that requires the use of extraordinary or additional equipment, or involves services not generally performed by it-it thereby contracts for a piece of work — filing special orders within the meaning of Article 1467. The orders herein exhibited were not shown to be special. They were merely orders for work — nothing is shown to call them special requiring extraordinary service of the factory.

The thought occurs to us that if, as alleged-all the work of appellant is only to fill orders previously made, such orders should not be called special work, but regular work. Would a factory do business performing only special, extraordinary or peculiar merchandise?

Anyway, supposing for the moment that the transactions were not sales, they were neither lease of services nor contract jobs by a contractor. But as the doors and windows had been admittedly “manufactured” by the Oriental Sash Factory, such transactions could be, and should be taxed as “transfers” thereof under section 186 of the National Revenue Code.

*Case digest by Paul Jason G. Acasio, JD-IV, Andres Bonifacio Law School, SY 2019-2020