G.R. No. 136729, 23 September 2003


Astro was granted several loans by the Philippine Trust Company (Philtrust) amounting P3M w/ interest and secured by 3 promissory notes: December 14, 1981: P600,000.00, December 14, 1981: P400,000.00, and August 27, 1981: P2,000,000.00.

Petitioner Roxas signed twice, as President of Astro and in his personal capacity. Roxas also signed a Continuing Surety ship Agreement in favor of Philtrust Bank, as President of Astro and as surety. Thereafter, Philguarantee, with the consent of Astro, guaranteed in favor of Philtrust the payment of 70% of Astros loan, subject to the condition that upon payment by Philguanrantee of said amount, it shall be proportionally subrogated to the rights of Philtrust against Astro.

As a result of Astros failure to pay its loan obligations, despite demands, Philguarantee paid 70% of the guaranteed loan to Philtrust. Subsequently, Philguarantee filed against Astro and Roxas a complaint for sum of money with the RTC of Makati. Roxas disclaims any liability on the instruments, alleging, inter alia, that he merely signed the same in blank and the phrases in his personal capacity and in his official capacity were fraudulently inserted without his knowledge.


Whether or not Roxas should be jointly and severally liable with Astro.


 Astros loan with Philtrust Bank is secured by three promissory notes. These promissory notes are valid and binding against Astro and Roxas. As it appears on the notes, Roxas signed twice: first, as president of Astro and second, in his personal capacity. In signing his name aside from being the President of Asro, Roxas became a co-maker of the promissory notes and cannot escape any liability arising from it. Under the Negotiable Instruments Law, persons who write their names on the face of promissory notes are makers, promising that they will pay to the order of the payee or any holder according to its tenor.

Thus, even without the phrase personal capacity, Roxas will still be primarily liable as a joint and several debtor under the notes considering that his intention to be liable as such is manifested by the fact that he affixed his signature on each of the promissory notes twice which necessarily would imply that he is undertaking the obligation in two different capacities, official and personal.

Philguarantee has all the right to proceed against petitioner, it is subrogated to the rights of Philtrust to demand for and collect payment from both Roxas and Astro since it already paid the value of 70% of roxas and Astro Electronics Corp.s loan obligation. In compliance with its contract of Guarantee in favor of Philtrust.

Affirming the decision of the Regional Trial Court (Branch 147) of Makati, then Metro Manila, whereby petitioners Peter Roxas and Astro Electronics Corp. (Astro for brevity) were ordered to pay respondent Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corporation (Philguarantee), jointly and severally, the amount of P3,621,187.52 with interests and costs.

 * Case digest by  Lady Rubyge Denura, LLB-1, Andres Bonifacio Law School, SY 2017-2018