38 Phil 404
By a public instrument, the plaintiff sold to the defendant four parcels of land, described in the instrument. The defendant Felix paid, at the time of the execution of the deed, the sum of P3,000 on account of the purchase price, and bound herself to pay the remainder in installments, the first of P2,000,and the second of P5,000 thirty days after the issuance to her of a certificate of title under the Land Registration Act, and further, within ten years from the date of such title P10, for each coconut tree in bearing and P5 for each such tree not in bearing, that might be growing on said four parcels of land on the date of the issuance of title to her, with the condition that the total price should not exceed P85,000.
It was further stipulated that the purchaser was to deliver to the vendor 25 per centum of the value of the products that she might obtain from the four parcels “from the moment she takes possession of them until the Torrens certificate of title be issued in her favor.” It was also covenanted that “within one year from the date of the certificate of title in favor of Marciana Felix, this latter may rescind the present contract of purchase and sale…”
The vendor filed suit to compel Felix to make payment of the first installment of P2,000, demandable in accordance with the terms of the contract of sale aforementioned, and of the interest in arrears, at the stipulated rate of 8 per cent per annum. The defendant answered the complaint and alleged by way of special defense that the plaintiff had absolutely failed to deliver to the defendant the lands that were the subject matter of the sale, notwithstanding the demands made upon him for this purpose. She therefore asked that she be absolved from the complaint, and that, after a declaration of the rescission of the contract of the purchase and sale of said lands, the plaintiff be ordered to refund the P3,000 that had been paid to him on account, together with the interest agreed upon, and to pay an indemnity for the losses and damages which the defendant alleged she had suffered through the plaintiff’s non-fulfillment of the contract.
Whether or not there has been delivery of the disputed property.
No. The record shows that the plaintiff did not deliver the thing sold. With respect to two of the parcels of land, he was not even able to show them to the purchaser; and as regards the other two, more than two-thirds of their area was in the hostile and adverse possession of a third person. It is evident, then, in the case at bar, that the mere execution of the instrument was not a fulfillment of the vendors’ obligation to deliver the thing sold, and that from such non-fulfillment arises the purchaser’s right to demand, as she has demanded, the rescission of the sale and the return of the price. (Civ. Code, arts. 1506 and 1124.)
The Code imposes upon the vendor the obligation to deliver the thing sold. The thing is considered to be delivered when it is placed “in the hands and possession of the vendee.” (Civ. Code, art. 1462.) It is true that the same article declares that the execution of a public instruments is equivalent to the delivery of the thing which is the object of the contract, but, in order that this symbolic delivery may produce the effect of tradition, it is necessary that the vendor shall have had such control over the thing sold that, at the moment of the sale, its material delivery could have been made. It is not enough to confer upon the purchaser the ownership and the right of possession.
The thing sold must be placed in his control. When there is no impediment whatever to prevent the thing sold passing into the tenancy of the purchaser by the sole will of the vendor, symbolic delivery through the execution of a public instrument is sufficient. But if, notwithstanding the execution of the instrument, the purchaser cannot have the enjoyment and material tenancy of the thing and make use of it himself or through another in his name, because such tenancy and enjoyment are opposed by the interposition of another will, then fiction yields to reality — the delivery has not been effected.
*Case digest by Stephanie C. Castillo, JD-IV, Andres Bonifacio College, SY: 2019-2020