G.R. No. 140667, 12 August 2004
Roxas Electric and Construction Company, Inc. (RECCI), formerly the Roxas Electric and Construction Company, was the owner of two parcels of land, identified as Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1 covered by Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) No. 78085 and Lot No. 491-A-3-B-2 covered by TCT No. 78086. A portion of Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1 which abutted Lot No. 491-A-3-B-2 was a dirt road accessing to the Sumulong Highway, Antipolo, Rizal.
Petitioner Woodchild Holdings, Inc. (WHI) wanted to buy Lot No. 491-A-3-B-2 covered by TCT No. 78086 on which it planned to construct its warehouse building, and a portion of the adjoining lot, Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1.
WHI complained to Roberto Roxas that the vehicles of RECCI were parked on a portion of the property over which WHI had been granted a right of way. Roxas promised to look into the matter. Dy and Roxas discussed the need of the WHI to buy a 500-square-meter portion of Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1 covered by TCT No. 78085 as provided for in the deed of absolute sale. However, Roxas died soon thereafter. On April 15, 1992, the WHI wrote the RECCI, reiterating its verbal requests to purchase a portion of the said lot as provided for in the deed of absolute sale, and complained about the latter’s failure to eject the squatters within the three-month period agreed upon in the said deed.
The WHI demanded that the RECCI sell a portion of Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1. There was no response.
The RECCI alleged that it never authorized its former president, Roberto Roxas, to grant the beneficial use of any portion of Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1, nor agreed to sell any portion thereof or create a lien or burden thereon.
Whether Roxas Electric and Construction Company, Inc is bound by the act of its agents?
No. It is not bound by the acts of its former president.
Generally, the acts of the corporate officers within the scope of their authority are binding on the corporation.
However, under Article 1910 of the New Civil Code, acts done by such officers beyond the scope of their authority cannot bind the corporation unless it has ratified such acts expressly or tacitly, or is estopped from denying them:Art. 1910. The principal must comply with all the obligations which the agent may have contracted within the scope of his authority. As for any obligation wherein the agent has exceeded his power, the principal is not bound except when he ratifies it expressly or tacitly. Thus, contracts entered into by corporate officers beyond the scope of authority are unenforceable against the corporation unless ratified by the corporation.
On this case, the respondent denied authorizing its then president Roberto B. Roxas to sell a portion of Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1 covered by TCT No. 78085, and to create a lien or burden thereon. The petitioner was thus burdened to prove that the respondent so authorized Roxas to sell the same and to create a lien thereon.
Central to the issue at hand is the May 17, 1991 Resolution of the Board of Directors of the respondent, which is worded as follows:RESOLVED, as it is hereby resolved, that the corporation, thru the President, sell to any interested buyer, its 7,213-sq.-meter property at the Sumulong Highway, Antipolo, Rizal, covered by Transfer Certificate of Title No. N-78086, at a price and on terms and conditions which he deems most reasonable and advantageous to the corporation; FURTHER RESOLVED, that Mr. ROBERTO B. ROXAS, President of the corporation, be, as he is hereby authorized to execute, sign and deliver the pertinent sales documents and receive the proceeds of sale for and on behalf of the company.
The authority of Roxas, under the resolution, to sell Lot No. 491-A-3-B-2 covered by TCT No. 78086 did not include the authority to sell a portion of the adjacent lot, Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1, or to create or convey real rights thereon. The petitioner cannot feign ignorance of the need for Roxas to have been specifically authorized in writing by the Board of Directors to be able to validly grant a right of way and agree to sell a portion of Lot No. 491-A-3-B-1. The rule is that if the act of the agent is one which requires authority in writing, those dealing with him are charged with notice of that fact.
Powers of attorney are generally construed strictly and courts will not infer or presume broad powers from deeds which do not sufficiently include property or subject under which the agent is to deal. The general rule is that the power of attorney must be pursued within legal strictures, and the agent can neither go beyond it; nor beside it. The act done must be legally identical with that authorized to be done. In sum, then, the consent of the respondent to the assailed provisions in the deed of absolute sale was not obtained; hence, the assailed provisions are not binding on it.
*Case digest by Claudette Anne G. Sayson, JD – 4, Andres Bonifacio College, SY 2019 – 2020