G.R. No.L-34382, 20 July 1983


On or about January 13, 1967, S. Kajita & Co., on behalf of Atlas Consolidated Mining & Development Corporation, shipped on board the SS “Eastern Jupiter’ from Osaka, Japan, 2,361 coils of “Black Hot Rolled Copper Wire Rods.” The said VESSEL is owned and operated by defendant Eastern Shipping Lines (CARRIER). The shipment was covered by Bill of Lading No. O-MA-9, with arrival notice to Phelps Dodge Copper Products Corporation of the Philippines (CONSIGNEE) at Manila. The shipment was insured with plaintiff against all risks in the amount of P1,580,105.06 under its Insurance Policy No. AS-73633.

The coils discharged from the VESSEL numbered 2,361, of which 53 were in bad order. What the CONSIGNEE ultimately received at its warehouse was the same number of 2,361 coils with 73 coils loose and partly cut, and 28 coils entangled, partly cut, and which had to be considered as scrap. Upon weighing at CONSIGNEE’s warehouse, the 2,361 coils were found to weight 263,940.85 kilos as against its invoiced weight of 264,534.00 kilos or a net loss/shortage of 593.15 kilos, according to Exhibit “A”, or 1,209,56 lbs., according to the claims presented by the consignee against the plaintiff (Exhibit “D-1”), the CARRIER (Exhibit “J-1”), and the TRANSPORTATION COMPANY (Exhibit “K- l”).

For the loss/damage suffered by the cargo, plaintiff paid the consignee under its insurance policy the amount of P3,260.44, by virtue of which plaintiff became subrogated to the rights and actions of the CONSIGNEE. Plaintiff made demands for payment against the CARRIER and the TRANSPORTATION COMPANY for reimbursement of the aforesaid amount but each refused to pay the same.

The plaintiff is a foreign insurance company duly authorized to do business in the Philippines through its agent, Mr. VICTOR H. BELLO, of legal age and with office address at Oledan Building, Ayala Avenue, Makati, Rizal.


Whether or not the subsequent registration of the foreign company cures the defect of lack of capacity at the time of the execution of the contract?



On the basis of factual and equitable considerations, there is no question that the private respondents should pay the obligations found by the trial court as owing to the petitioner. Only the question of validity of the contracts in relation to lack of capacity to sue stands in the way of the petitioner being given the affirmative relief it seeks. Whether or not the petitioner was engaged in single acts or solitary transactions and not engaged in business is likewise not in issue. The petitioner was engaged in business without a license. The private respondents’ obligation to pay under the terms of the contracts has been proved.

When the complaints in these two cases were filed, the petitioner had already secured the necessary license to conduct its insurance business in the Philippines. It could already filed suits. It has long been the rule that a foreign corporation actually doing business in the Philippines without license to do so may be sued in our courts. The defendant American corporation in General Corporation of the Philippines v. Union Insurance Society of Canton Ltd et al. (87 Phil. 313) entered into insurance contracts without the necessary license or authority. When summons was served on the agent, the defendant had not yet been registered and authorized to do business. The registration and authority came a little less than two months later. This Court ruled:

Counsel for appellant contends that at the time of the service of summons, the appellant had not yet been authorized to do business. But, as already stated, section 14, Rule 7 of the Rules of Court makes no distinction as to corporations with or without authority to do business in the Philippines. The test is whether a foreign corporation was actually doing business here. Otherwise, a foreign corporation illegally doing business here because of its refusal or neglect to obtain the corresponding license and authority to do business may successfully though unfairly plead such neglect or illegal act so as to avoid service and thereby impugn the jurisdiction of the local courts. It would indeed be anomalous and quite prejudicial, even disastrous, to the citizens in this jurisdiction who in all good faith and in the regular course of business accept and pay for shipments of goods from America, relying for their protection on duly executed foreign marine insurance policies made payable in Manila and duly endorsed and delivered to them, that when they go to court to enforce said policies, the insurer who all along has been engaging in this business of issuing similar marine policies, serenely pleads immunity to local jurisdiction because of its refusal or neglect to obtain the corresponding license to do business here thereby compelling the consignees or purchasers of the goods insured to go to America and sue in its courts for redress.

There is no question that the contracts are enforceable. The requirement of registration affects only the remedy. Significantly, Batas Pambansa Blg. 68, the Corporation Code of the Philippines has corrected the ambiguity caused by the wording of Section 69 of the old Corporation Law.

Section 133 of the present Corporation Code provides:

SEC. 133. Doing business without a license.-No foreign corporation transacting business in the Philippines without a license, or its successors or assigns, shag be permitted to maintain or intervene in any action, suit or proceeding in any court or administrative agency in the Philippines; but such corporation may be sued or proceeded against before Philippine courts or administrative tribunals on any valid cause of action recognized under Philippine laws.

Our ruling that the lack of capacity at the time of the execution of the contracts was cured by the subsequent registration is also strengthened by the procedural aspects of these cases.

*Case Digest by Mary Tweetie Antonette G. Semprun, JD – IV, Andres Bonifacio College, SY 2019 – 2020