G.R. No. L-39050, 24 February 1981
Private respondent Insular Sawmill, Inc. is a corporation organized on September 17, 1945 with a corporate life of fifty (50) years, or up to September 17, 1995, with the primary purpose of carrying on a general lumber and sawmill business. To carry on this business, private respondent leased the paraphernal property of petitioner-wife Guillermina M. Gelano at the corner of Canonigo and Otis, Paco, Manila for P1,200.00 a month. It was while private respondent was leasing the aforesaid property that its officers and directors had come to know petitioner-husband Carlos Gelano who received from the corporation cash advances on account of rentals to be paid by the corporation on the land.
Between November 19, 1947 to December 26, 1950 petitioner Carlos Gelano obtained from private respondent cash advances of P25,950.00. The said sum was taken and received by petitioner Carlos Gelano on the agreement that private respondent could deduct the same from the monthly rentals of the leased premises until said cash advances are fully paid. Out of the aforementioned cash advances in the total sum of P25,950.00, petitioner Carlos Gelano was able to pay only P5,950.00 thereby leaving an unpaid balance of P20,000.00 which he refused to pay despite repeated demands by private respondent. Petitioner Guillermina M. Gelano refused to pay on the ground that said amount was for the personal account of her husband asked for by, and given to him, without her knowledge and consent and did not benefit the family.
On various occasions from May 4, 1948 to September 11, 1949 petitioners husband and wife also made credit purchases of lumber materials from private respondent. In order to accommodate and help petitioners renew previous loans obtained by them from the China Banking Corporation, private respondent, through Joseph Tan Yoc Su, executed a joint and several promissory note with Carlos Gelano in favor of said bank in the amount of P8,000.00 payable in sixty (60) days. For failure of Carlos Gelano to pay the promissory note upon maturity, the bank collected from the respondent corporation the amount of P9,106.00 including interests, by debiting it from the corporation’s current account with the bank. Petitioner Carlos Gelano was able to pay private respondent the amount of P5,000.00 but the balance of P4,106.00 remained unsettled. Guillermina M. Gelano refused to pay on the ground that she had no knowledge about the accommodation made by the corporation in favor of her husband.
The corporation, thru Atty. German Lee, filed a complaint for collection against herein petitioners. Private respondent amended its Articles of Incorporation to shorten its term of existence up to December 31, 1960 only. The amended Articles of Incorporation was filed with, and approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission, but the trial court was not notified of the amendment shortening the corporate existence and no substitution of party was ever made. On November 20, 1964 and almost four (4) years after the dissolution of the corporation, the trial court rendered a decision in favor of private respondent.
Both parties appealed to the Court of Appeals, private respondent also appealing because it insisted that both Carlos Gelano and Guillermina Gelano should be held liable for the substantial portion of the claim. On August 23, 1973, the Court of Appeals rendered a decision modifying the judgment of the trial court by holding petitioner spouses jointly and severally liable on private respondent’s claim and increasing the award of P4,106.00. After petitioners received a copy of the decision on August 24, 1973, they came to know that the Insular Sawmill Inc. was dissolved way back on December 31, 1960. Hence, petitioners filed a motion to dismiss the case and/or reconsideration of the decision of the Court of Appeals on grounds that the case was prosecuted even after dissolution of private respondent as a corporation and that a defunct corporation cannot maintain any suit for or against it without first complying with the requirements of the winding up of the affairs of the corporation and the assignment of its property rights within the required period.
Whether or not a corporation, whose corporate life had ceased by the expiration of its term of existence, could still continue prosecuting and defending suits after its dissolution and beyond the period of three years provided under the Corporation Law, to wind up its affairs, without having undertaken any step to transfer its assets to a trustee or assignee?
The complaint in this case was filed on May 29, 1959 when private respondent Insular Sawmill, Inc. was still existing. While the case was being tried, the stockholders amended its Articles of Incorporation by shortening the term of its existence from December 31, 1995 to December 31, 1960, which was approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
In American corporate law, upon which our Corporation Law was patterned, it is well settled that, unless the statutes otherwise provide, all pending suits and actions by and against a corporation are abated by a dissolution of the corporation. 5 Section 77 of the Corporation Law provides that the corporation shall “be continued as a body corporate for three (3) years after the time when it would have been … dissolved, for the purpose of prosecuting and defending suits By or against it …,” so that, thereafter, it shall no longer enjoy corporate existence for such purpose. For this reason, Section 78 of the same law authorizes the corporation, “at any time during said three years … to convey all of its property to trustees for the benefit of members, Stockholders, creditors and other interested,” evidently for the purpose, among others, of enabling said trustees to prosecute and defend suits by or against the corporation begun before the expiration of said period. 6 Commenting on said sections, Justice Fisher said:It is to be noted that the time during which the corporation, through its own officers, may conduct the liquidation of its assets and sue and be sued as a corporation is limited to three years from the time the period of dissolution commences; but that there is no time limited within which the trustees must complete a liquidation placed in their hands. It is provided only (Corp. Law, Sec. 78) that the conveyance to the trustees must be made within the three-year period. It may be found impossible to complete the work of liquidation within the three-year period or to reduce disputed claims to judgment. The authorities are to the effect that suits by or against a corporation abate when it ceased to be an entity capable of suing or being sued (7 R.C.L. Corps., Par. 750); but trustees to whom the corporate assets have been conveyed pursuant to the authority of Section 78 may sue and be sued as such in all matters connected with the liquidation. By the terms of the statute the effect of the conveyance is to make the trustees the legal owners of the property conveyed, subject to the beneficial interest therein of creditors and stockholders.
When Insular Sawmill, Inc. was dissolved on December 31, 1960, under Section 77 of the Corporation Law, it stin has the right until December 31, 1963 to prosecute in its name the present case. After the expiration of said period, the corporation ceased to exist for all purposes and it can no longer sue or be sued.
However, a corporation that has a pending action and which cannot be terminated within the three-year period after its dissolution is authorized under Section 78 to convey all its property to trustees to enable it to prosecute and defend suits by or against the corporation beyond the Three-year period although private respondent did not appoint any trustee, yet the counsel who prosecuted and defended the interest of the corporation in the instant case and who in fact appeared in behalf of the corporation may be considered a trustee of the corporation at least with respect to the matter in litigation only. Said counsel had been handling the case when the same was pending before the trial court until it was appealed before the Court of Appeals and finally to this Court. We therefore hold that there was a substantial compliance with Section 78 of the Corporation Law and as such, private respondent Insular Sawmill, Inc. could still continue prosecuting the present case even beyond the period of three (3) years from the time of its dissolution.
The word “trustee” as used in the corporation statute must be understood in its general concept which could include the counsel to whom was entrusted in the instant case, the prosecution of the suit filed by the corporation. The purpose in the transfer of the assets of the corporation to a trustee upon its dissolution is more for the protection of its creditor and stockholders. Debtors like the petitioners herein may not take advantage of the failure of the corporation to transfer its assets to a trustee, assuming it has any to transfer which petitioner has failed to show, in the first place. To sustain petitioners’ contention would be to allow them to enrich themselves at the expense of another, which all enlightened legal systems condemn.
*Case Digest by Mary Tweetie Antonette G. Semprun, JD – IV, Andres Bonifacio College, SY 2019 – 2020